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  • 在巡线小车教程里复制粘贴之后的代码,不知道为什么运行出来的结果和预想的不一样



    • 我运行时显示的图像结果是这样:
      0_1587987160720_ce84b71a-5a19-49d0-a7e3-e5ce67d3091c-image.png

      按照教程来看,结果应该是这样:
      0_1587987314667_12-03-001-01.jpg

      结果应该是所巡的路线成白色,而且图像中间画有条线,但是我运行出的结果是图像中间没有画有线,请问大佬们这是为什么。

      请在这里粘贴代码
      <main.py>
      THRESHOLD = (33, 62, 0, 79, 60, -6) # Grayscale threshold for dark things...

      import sensor, image, time

      from pyb import LED

      import car

      from pid import PID

      rho_pid = PID(p=0.4, i=0)

      theta_pid = PID(p=0.001, i=0)

      LED(1).on()

      LED(2).on()

      LED(3).on()

      sensor.reset()

      sensor.set_vflip(True)

      sensor.set_hmirror(True)

      sensor.set_pixformat(sensor.RGB565)

      sensor.set_framesize(sensor.QQQVGA) # 80x60 (4,800 pixels) - O(N^2) max = 2,3040,000.

      #sensor.set_windowing([0,20,80,40])

      sensor.skip_frames(time = 2000) # WARNING: If you use QQVGA it may take seconds

      clock = time.clock() # to process a frame sometimes.

      while(True):

      clock.tick()
      
      img = sensor.snapshot().binary([THRESHOLD])
      
      line = img.get_regression([(100,100,0,0,0,0)], robust = True)
      
      if (line):
      
          rho_err = abs(line.rho())-img.width()/2
      
          if line.theta()>90:
      
              theta_err = line.theta()-180
      
          else:
      
              theta_err = line.theta()
      
          img.draw_line(line.line(), color = 127)
      
          print(rho_err,line.magnitude(),rho_err)
      
          if line.magnitude()>8:
      
              #if -40<b_err<40 and -30<t_err<30:
      
              rho_output = rho_pid.get_pid(rho_err,1)
      
              theta_output = theta_pid.get_pid(theta_err,1)
      
              output = rho_output+theta_output
      
              car.run(50+output, 50-output)
      
          else:
      
              car.run(0,0)
      
      else:
      
          car.run(50,-50)
      
          pass
      
      #print(clock.fps())
      
      请在这里粘贴代码
      <pid.py>
      from pyb import millis
      from math import pi, isnan
      class PID:
      	_kp = _ki = _kd = _integrator = _imax = 0
      	_last_error = _last_derivative = _last_t = 0
      	_RC = 1/(2 * pi * 20)
      	def __init__(self, p=0, i=0, d=0, imax=0):
      		self._kp = float(p)
      		self._ki = float(i)
      		self._kd = float(d)
      		self._imax = abs(imax)
      		self._last_derivative = float('nan')
      	def get_pid(self, error, scaler):
      		tnow = millis()
      		dt = tnow - self._last_t
      		output = 0
      		if self._last_t == 0 or dt > 1000:
      			dt = 0
      			self.reset_I()
      		self._last_t = tnow
      		delta_time = float(dt) / float(1000)
      		output += error * self._kp
      		if abs(self._kd) > 0 and dt > 0:
      			if isnan(self._last_derivative):
      				derivative = 0
      				self._last_derivative = 0
      			else:
      				derivative = (error - self._last_error) / delta_time
      			derivative = self._last_derivative + \
      									 ((delta_time / (self._RC + delta_time)) * \
      										(derivative - self._last_derivative))
      			self._last_error = error
      			self._last_derivative = derivative
      			output += self._kd * derivative
      		output *= scaler
      		if abs(self._ki) > 0 and dt > 0:
      			self._integrator += (error * self._ki) * scaler * delta_time
      			if self._integrator < -self._imax: self._integrator = -self._imax
      			elif self._integrator > self._imax: self._integrator = self._imax
      			output += self._integrator
      		return output
      	def reset_I(self):
      		self._integrator = 0
      		self._last_derivative = float('nan')
      
      
      

      请在这里粘贴代码
      <car.py>
      from pyb import Pin, Timer
      inverse_left=False
      inverse_right=False
      ain1 = Pin('P0', Pin.OUT_PP)
      ain2 = Pin('P1', Pin.OUT_PP)
      bin1 = Pin('P2', Pin.OUT_PP)
      bin2 = Pin('P3', Pin.OUT_PP)
      ain1.low()
      ain2.low()
      bin1.low()
      bin2.low()
      pwma = Pin('P7')
      pwmb = Pin('P8')
      tim = Timer(4, freq=1000)
      ch1 = tim.channel(1, Timer.PWM, pin=pwma)
      ch2 = tim.channel(2, Timer.PWM, pin=pwmb)
      ch1.pulse_width_percent(0)
      ch2.pulse_width_percent(0)
      def run(left_speed, right_speed):
      if inverse_left==True:
      left_speed=(-left_speed)
      if inverse_right==True:
      right_speed=(-right_speed)
      if left_speed < 0:
      ain1.low()
      ain2.high()
      else:
      ain1.high()
      ain2.low()
      ch1.pulse_width_percent(abs(left_speed))
      if right_speed < 0:
      bin1.low()
      bin2.high()
      else:
      bin1.high()
      bin2.low()
      ch2.pulse_width_percent(abs(right_speed))



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